Tuesday, 31 May 2016

Practice exam answer: Olive Baboons

Today in class we were studying for our practice exam that will be happening next week Friday. This is a practice exam question that I tried to answer to get a better understanding on how a question in the exam could ask about territory and home ranges.

The life of Tiki the Java Macaque

What is a dominance Hierarchy?
Dominance Hierarchy is determined by how dominant and individual is in a group. Depending on what role the individual person has in the group depends on how dominant the particular individual is in. This shows how the Dominance hierarchy is the organisation of the individual depending on there social rank.

How can a place in the Hierarchy be established?
A place in the Hierarchy can be established by inheritance. When an individual is born into a hierarchy the social ranking of the mother can determine the rank of the child. Tikis mother was in the middle of the social ranking she was still below some of the Java Macaque but was also above others. This meant that when Tiki was born he would be below the Children of women who had a higher social rank then his mother but he would be above children whose mothers had a lower social rank than his mother.

Another way they could establish there place in the Hierarchy is through aggressively fighting. As they become older they are able to fight for there place to become more domiant and show that they are more dominant. In Tiki's case he first served and got into the good books of the other Java Macaque on top of him so that he would be able to challenge the Alpha and become the Alpha himself once he was ready. Tiki was born at the top of the hierarchy but through aggressively fighting to became the alpha.

Who is in a Hierarchy?
In a Hierarchy there is a Alpha,Beta and Submissive's. In tikis particular Hierarchy he was above some but below others. Tiki was first submissive to those above him but worked his way to the top of the hierarchy later becoming the Alpha.

How is a hierarchy Maintained?-Agnostic behavior definition 
The Hierarchy can be maintained through Agnostic behaviors.Agnostic behaviors are used by higher ranked animals in the particular social group will use displays to put someone that is lower then them in there place. Agnostic behaviors include threats as well as aggressive behavior.  Agnostic behaviors can include biting,showing teeth,pecking, posturing(displaying strength),Dominant/submissive body language or actions,snarling and warning signs.

Benefits of the Hierarchy?
Hierarchies are helpful as it allows social groups to be able to live together.

The benefits of a hierarchy include that fact that it limits fighting as the particular species know there place within there particular social group. The actual amount of severe aggressive fighting is limited because of this. This takes away the risk of them being killed or getting badly hurt because of the aggressive fighting that would happen otherwise.

The social groups maintained through the hierarchy are able to obtain resources through hunting more effectively as they are able to do it together as group.

The amount of competition between the particular social group is reduced as they know when they are allowed access to mates and when they are allowed access to food as they go by who is more dominant.

Non-Breeding individuals in the Hierarchy can help raise the offspring of others.

Thursday, 5 May 2016

Navigation for Migration and Homing

Yesterday in class we learnt about how animals use different types of navigation when Migrating and homing. These different ways included Visual cues when they use their visuals to know where to go, Star compass when animals use the stars to navigate, Magnetic when they use the Earths magnetic field as a way of navigation they can feel the world's magnetic field and can tell where on the earth they are through this, Sun compass is when animals use Sun as a way of navigating.  Homing is  when animals are able to return home after searching for food or mates from a short distance. Migration is a journey made by animals often over long distances, often once a year or once in a lifetime where they move from once region to another.

Godwits are New Zealand Native birds. Bar-Tailed Godwits Migrate from New Zealand to as far as Alaska.  To navigate during their migration from New Zealand to Alaska and back they use all the different types of navigation to get there but also need to be very skill full in knowing the different types of weather they may experience during their journey. Although there are disadvantages while taking this journey the advantages outweigh the disadvantages which is why they migrate. The advantages include their need to find different types of food in different seasons and the amount of food they need in those seasons. The Godwits migrate because of their need to find resources of different seasons this includes Mudflats and seafloor dwelling fauna. The advantages include a larger source of food for birds that will be breeding and for their young. The disadvantages of this long journey is the energy it cost to do this, the chances of being eaten and the fact when they arrive wings are drooping. 

The poster below shows how we know these different types of navigations are actually used by animals